Some problems about the development of gravure pre

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Several problems about the development of gravure printing machine

the development of gravure printing technology in China started late. In the 1980s, in order to change the backward situation of the first-class products, second-class packaging and third-class prices of China's packaging technology, the relevant departments increased the development of packaging technology, so that the package printing technology developed rapidly, thus providing a good condition for the progress of gravure printing technology. After nearly 20 years of efforts, China's gravure printing technology is relatively mature, the equipment is relatively advanced, and has a certain scale. Its importance is second only to lithographic printing, and it has become the second largest printing method, accounting for an important position in China's printing industry

Gravure printing market in recent 20 years, gravure printing technology in China has developed to a certain extent, and gravure printing accounted for about 10% of the printing industry by 2000; Gravure printing accounts for 19% of the packaging printing, mainly focusing on the printing of flexible packaging materials and paper container packaging printing. Among cigarette packaging printing, gravure printing accounts for about 30%; Plastic film printing is almost all gravure printing

2. plate making technology

on the whole, China's gravure plate making technology is basically based on imported equipment. Due to the traditional carbon paper corrosion gravure plate making process is complex, the plate making cycle is long, the plate making quality is not high, and there is great pollution and other disadvantages, so the adhesive spraying corrosion gravure and electronic engraving gravure plate making technology were introduced and promoted from abroad in the mid-1980s, which laid a good foundation for the development of gravure printing technology in China. Now, according to incomplete statistics, China has imported more than 400 electronic color separators and more than 50 electronic engraving machines. In addition, it has also introduced advanced plate making technologies such as glue spraying corrosion gravure bumelan plate making system, film free electronic engraving system and laser engraving system. It can be recognized that at present, China's gravure plate making technology has reached the world level, and its plate making capacity can meet the market demand

3. Gravure printing machine

gravure printing machine can be divided into web gravure printing machine and single paper gravure printing machine according to the different forms of substrate

web gravure printing machine includes two types: unit gravure printing machine and satellite gravure printing machine, which are mainly used for paper printing and plastic film printing

so far, more than 420 gravure production lines have been introduced across the country, including printing, compounding, slitting, bag making and other supporting equipment. Among them, the printing speed of medium and high-grade multi-color gravure printing machines is generally more than 250m/min, which is mostly used for package printing. Foreign manufacturers mainly include boster in Switzerland, chambang in France, Stevenson in the United States, ceroody in Italy and all India in Australia. The users who have introduced foreign equipment are mainly Changde quanpeng gravure printing company, Chongqing Huacai printing, printing plant of Shanghai tobacco company, Shaanxi HR (1) 50A desktop Rockwell hardness tester and fy310 portable Rockwell hardness tester, which have different sensory differences from cigarette bag printing companies in Jinye, Yunnan Qiaotong, Kunming, Zhanjiang and other places. These equipments have played an important role in cigarette packet printing in China

in addition, in order to meet the requirements of plastic film printing, medium-range multi-color gravure printing machines are also introduced from abroad, and their printing speed is generally about 200m/min

in order to meet the needs of packaging and printing of small and medium-sized enterprises, about 15 printing machine companies in China produce medium and low-grade web gravure printing machines, which are mainly distributed in Beijing, Shaanxi, Guangdong, and other places, such as Beijing Printing Machine Research Institute, Shaanxi beiren, Qinhua in Xi'an, Heiniu, Xinda, Huabang and Zhongbao; Shantou Shanzhang, Zhongshan Songde, Jiangnan, Shantou Huaying, and Shunde Debao in Guangdong have taken practical actions, and Shenzhen's fengshengtai; Zhejiang's Zhening, Xinda, Wen's divine power, Ruian, Deguang, etc. The total production of gravure printing machines is about 300

sheet fed gravure printing machine is mainly used for printing high-end samples, magazines, cartons and securities including banknote printing. With folio as the standard model, the printing color number has monochrome machine and two-color machine. According to user requirements, three-color or four-color machine can also be configured

for more than ten years, the gravure printing machines have been mainly imported from German moger printing machine company and Japan Mitsubishi. Due to its high price, it is mainly introduced by the cigarette bag printing gang and banknote printing factory with abundant funds, and it is estimated that more than 20 sets will be introduced

in recent years, according to the market demand, China has begun to research and develop sheet fed gravure printing machines. The main manufacturers include beiren group company, Beijing zhenhenry printing machine company, Shanghai Ziming machinery company, Shanghai Hairun and Shanghai Electric Group printing machine company, with a total output of about 200 sets, and a promising market prospect

although gravure printing technology in China has made great progress, there is a big gap compared with the world advanced level, which is mainly reflected in the following aspects

1) low level of product technology. At present, foreign gravure printing machines have a high technical level, mainly including the following three points:

excellent working performance: the printing speed of web gravure printing machines is mostly below 200m/min, the printing speed of sheet fed gravure printing machines can be stabilized at 10000 sheets/hour, and the overprint accuracy is generally not more than 0.1mm in the main parts

high degree of automation: it can minimize downtime, give full play to the production capacity of the machine, and have high productivity

when the printing speed of web gravure printing machine exceeds 100M/min, most of them are equipped with print quality detection systems, such as print image observation system, print defect automatic detection system and total quality 100% automatic detection system. Some manufacturers are also equipped with gravure machine systems. The CPS monitoring system of Liyang gravure machine is a yellow example. This is an effective measure to ensure the quality of printing products, reduce the paper loss rate and reduce the printing cost

in contrast, the working performance of domestic gravure printing machines is low, the printing speed is mostly at the medium and low speed level, the overprint accuracy is calculated according to international regulations, the main part of packaging and decoration gravure printing is 0.3, and the automatic divorce procedure and the detection technology of printing quality are backward, which are the main reasons for low productivity, poor quality stability and high printing cost

2) the level of specialized production is backward

effectively organizing specialized production is the only way to improve product technology, ensure product quality and reduce costs. In this regard, many foreign manufacturers have set an example for us. For example, the paper feeding parts of the sheet gravure printing machine produced by German moger printing machine company are provided by Heidelberg company. Another example is that the automatic tension control system, automatic registration control system and automatic print quality detection system of web gravure printing machine are also provided by professional production enterprises. China's printing machine manufacturing industry has long been used to the production mode of large and complete or small and complete. In particular, enterprises of similar products are often closed to each other and have exchanges. As a result, enterprises will inevitably bear a heavy burden and restrict each other. It is difficult to obtain complementary advantages and common development. If we carefully investigate how many parts of gravure press produced by gravure press manufacturing enterprises in China in recent 20 years are provided by professional manufacturers, we will understand the backwardness of China's professional production level

3) gravure printing pollution is serious

among the three main printing methods, offset printing, flexo printing and gravure printing, gravure printing causes the most serious pollution. In order to reduce pollution, foreign printing industry has taken effective measures and achieved good results. For example, the carbon paper corrosion gravure plate making process with severe pollution has long been eliminated; In the process of pre-processing the cylinder body of the printing plate, spraying glue to corrode the gravure plate and making electronic engraving gravure plate, the treatment of waste liquid is strengthened to reduce the pollution of gravure plate making; In Xiuban printing, gravure water-based inks have been successfully developed in the mid and late 1990s. All paper printing uses gravure water-based inks, and plastic film printing also does nothing as scorecard inks. This is the main reason why foreign gravure printing cannot maintain a 15% market share at present

at present, the waste liquid treatment in the process of plate cylinder pre-processing and gravure production has developed slowly in China; In printing, whether paper gravure printing is not plastic film gravure printing, because the price of salivary ink is too high, solvent gravure printing ink is basically used

solvent gravure printing ink is an important pollution source of gravure printing. For example, chlorine hydrocarbons are released during the production of the ink to pollute the atmosphere and destroy the ozone layer of the earth; Toxic substances are discharged during use, which is harmful to human health, and there is a risk of flammability and explosion; The organic solvent remaining on the surface of the printed matter will be directly polluted by seeping into the package. For this reason, the replacement of solvent based gravure printing ink with water-based gravure printing ink has become the basic requirement for gravure printing in the world today, especially for the printing of tobacco, alcohol, drug packaging and food packaging, the use of solvent based printing ink should be prohibited. There is little information available, so it is urgent to promote the use of water-based gravure ink

thinking after China's entry into WTO

but when confirming the shrinkage rate, 2002 was the first year of China's entry into WTO. China's entry into WTO provided opportunities for the development of gravure printing technology in China, but it also brought new challenges. In particular, China will allow foreign wholly-owned enterprises engaged in packaging and printing to enter the Chinese market. They have advanced technology and equipment, abundant funds and scientific management, which will bring great pressure and impact to the domestic gravure market. For this reason, we must vigorously carry out the organizational adjustment of the enterprise, avoid low-level repeated construction, increase the investment in the research and development of new products and materials, and provide the domestic gravure printing market with much-needed gravure printing equipment and materials. Therefore, it is suggested to do the following work well

1. pay close attention to the organizational adjustment of enterprises

in the coming period, the organizational adjustment of gravure printing enterprises in China should focus on two aspects:

1) solve the large and comprehensive production mode of enterprises, and develop professional and socialized production

the organizational structure of gravure printing enterprises in China, especially gravure machine manufacturing enterprises, mostly belongs to the olive model, that is, the middle is heavy and the two ends are light: the production of parts and components of products is almost all produced internally by the enterprise, accounting for an excessive proportion; However, the ability of product research and development, marketing and after-sales service, which determine the life of enterprises, is too weak and accounts for a small proportion. In this way, the competitiveness of products will inevitably be weakened. After organizational adjustment, the olive business model should be transformed into a dumbbell business model, that is, the enterprise only completes the production and product assembly of a few parts, and turns the production of parts with a large proportion to the society, which is undertaken by socialized and professional manufacturers, focusing on strengthening product research and development, marketing and after-sales service, so as to enhance the competitiveness of the enterprise

2) realize enterprise merger, reorganization and association, and form three small enterprises

at present, three enterprises in the domestic printing machine industry have preliminarily completed enterprise mergers, reorganizations and alliances, namely, beiren group, Shanghai printing and packaging machinery company acquired Akiyama company of Japan, and Lianqiang printing machine group, which was jointly established by Jingdezhen printing and packaging machinery company, Weihai printing machine company, Tangshan Yuyin and Changchun printing machine factory. This is the first step of enterprise organization adjustment. After a period of practice, we will continue to sum up experience and improve it, and we will certainly receive good results

at present, there are about 20 domestic manufacturers of gravure printing machines, which are basically large and all small and all inclusive production modes, and there are low technical level and repeated production conditions to varying degrees. If we advance the necessary enterprise mergers, reorganizations and alliances according to their respective advantages, and gradually form three small enterprises, namely, small and specialized, small and refined, and small and strong enterprises, we can greatly improve production

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